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中华人民共和国合同法(英文版)
  作者:   时间: 2012-6-26   来源:   点击:55674  

Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China
Order [1999] No.15 of the President of the People’s Republic of China
Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China has been adopted at the Second Session of the Ninth National People’s Congress on March 15, 1999, and is hereby promulgated, it will come into force as of October 1, 1999.
President of the People’s Republic of China: Jiang Zemin
March 15, 1999
Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China
General Provisions
Chapter 1 General Provisions
Article 1 This Law is enacted in order to protect the lawful rights and interests of the contracting parties, to maintain social and economic order, and to promote the process of socialist modernization.
Article 2 A contract in this Law refers to an agreement among natural persons, legal persons or other organizations as equal parties for the establishment, modification of a relationship involving the civil rights and obligations of such entities.
Agreements concerning personal relationships such as marriage,adoption, guardianship, etc.shall be governed by the provisions in other laws.
Article 3 Contracting parties shall have equal legal status, and no party may impose its will on the other party.
Article 4 The parties have the right to lawfully enter into a contract of their own free will in accordance with the law, and no unit or individual may illegally interfere therewith.
Article 5 The parties shall adhere to the principle of fairness in deciding their respective rights and obligations.
Article 6 The parties shall observe the principle of honesty and good faith in exercising their rights and performing their obligations.
Article 7 In concluding and performing a contract, the parties shall comply with the laws and administrative regulations, respect social ethics, and shall not disrupt the social and economic order or impair the public interests.
Article 8 A lawfully established contract shall be legally binding on the parties thereto, each of whom shall perform its own obligations in accordance with the terms of the contract, and no party shall unilaterally modify or terminate the contract.
The contract established according to law is protected by law.
Chapter 2 Conclusion of Contracts
Article 9 In entering into a contract, the parties shall have appropriate capacities for civil rights and civil acts.
A party may appoint an agent to enter into a contract on its behalf in accordance with the law.
Article 10 The parties may use written, oral or other forms in entering into a contract.
A contract shall be in written form if the laws or administrative regulations so provide. A contract shall be concluded in written form if the parties so agree.
Article 11 "Written form" refers to a form such as a written contractual agreement, letter, electronic data text(including a telegram, telex, fax, electronic data exchange and e-mail)that can tangibly express the contents contained therein.
Article 12 The contents of a contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and shall generally contain the following clauses:
(1) titles or names and domiciles of the parties;
(2) subject matter;
(3) quantity;
(4) quality;
(5) price or remuneration;
(6) time limit, place and method of performance;
(7) liability for breach of contract; and
(8) method to settle disputes.
The parties may conclude a contract by reference to a model text of each kind of contract.
Article 13 The parties shall conclude a contract in the form of an offer and an acceptance.
Article 14 An offer is an expression of an intent to enter into a contract with another person. Such expression of intent shall comply with the following:
(1) its contents shall be specific and definite;
(2) it indicates that the offeror will be bound by the expression of intent in case of acceptance by the offeree.
Article 15 An invitation for offer is an expression of an intent to invite other parties to make offers thereto. Mailed price lists, public notices of auction and tender, prospectuses and commercial advertisements, etc. are invitations for offer.
Where the contents of a commercial advertisement meet the requirements for an offer, it shall be regarded as an offer.
Article 16 An offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree.
  If a contract is concluded through data-telex, and a recipient designates a specific system to receive the date-telex, the time when the data-telex enters such specific system shall be the time of arrival; if no specific system is appointed, the time when the data-telex first enters any of the recipient’s systems shall be regarded as the time of arrival.
Article 17 An offer may be withdrawn. The withdrawal notice shall reach the offeree before or at the same time when the offer arrives.
Article 18 An offer may be revoked. The revocation notice shall reach the offeree before it has dispatched a notice of acceptance.
Article 19 An offer may not be revoked, if
(1) the offeror indicates a fixed time for acceptance or otherwise explicitly states that the offer is irrevocable; or
(2) the offeree has reasons to rely on the offer as being irrevocable and has made preparation for performing the contact.
Article 20 An offer shall lose efficacy under any of the following circumstances:
(1) the notice of rejection reaches the offeror;
(2) the offeror revokes the offer in accordance with the law;
(3) the offeree fails to dispatch an acceptance before the expiration of the time limit for acceptance;
(4) the offeree makes substantial changes to the contents of the offer.
Article 21 An acceptance is the expression of an intention to by the offeree to assent to the offer.
Article 22 The acceptance shall be made in the form of a notice, except where acceptance may be made by an act on the basis of customary business practice or as expressed in the offer.
Article 23 An acceptance shall reach the offeror within the time limit prescribed in the offer.
  Where no time limit is prescribed in the offer, the acceptance shall reach the offeror in accordance with the following provisions:
(1) if the offer is made in dialogues, the acceptance shall be made immediately unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties;
(2) If the offer is made in forms other than a dialogue, the acceptance shall reach the offeror within a reasonable period of time.
Article 24 Where an offer is made by letter or telegram, the time limit for acceptance shall accrue from the date shown in the letter or from the date on which the telegram is handed in for dispatch. If no such date is shown in the letter, it shall accrue from the postmark date on the envelope.
Where an offer is made by means of instantaneous communication, such as telephone or facsimile,etc. the time limit for acceptance shall accrue from the moment that the offer reaches the offeree.
Article 25 A contract is established when the acceptance becomes effective.
Article 26 An acceptance becomes effective when its notice reaches the offeror. If notice of acceptance is not required, the acceptance shall become effective when an act of acceptance is performed in accordance with transaction practices or as required in the offer.
  Where a contract is concluded in the form of date-telex, the time of arrival of an acceptance shall be governed by the provisions of Paragraph 2, Article 16 of this Law.
Article 27 An acceptance may be withdrawn, but a notice of withdrawal shall reach the offeror before or at the same time when the notice of acceptance reaches the offeror.
Article 28 Where an offeree makes an acceptance beyond the time limit for acceptance, the acceptance shall be a new offer except that the offeror promptly informs the offeree of the effectiveness of the said acceptance.
Article 29 If the offeree dispatched the acceptance within the time limit specified for acceptance, and under normal circumstances the acceptance would have reached the offeror in due time, but due to other reasons the acceptance reaches the offeror after the time limit for acceptance has expired,such acceptance shall be effective, unless the offeror notifies the offeree in a timely manner that it does not accept the acceptance due to the failure of the acceptance to arrive within the time limit.
Article 30 The contents of an acceptance shall comply with those of the offer. If the offeree substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall constitute a new offer. The modification relating to the subject matter, quality, quantity, price or remuneration, time or place or method of performance, liabilities for breach of contract and method of dispute resolution, etc. shall constitute the substantial modification of an offer.
Article 31 If the acceptance does not substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall be effective, and the contents of the contract shall be subject to those of the acceptance, except as rejected promptly by the offeror or indicated in the offer that an acceptance may not modify the offer at all.
Article 32 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the contract is established when it is signed or sealed by the parties.
Article 33 Where the parties conclude the contract in the form of letters or data-telex, etc., one party may request to sign a letter of confirmation before the conclusion of the contract. The contract shall be established at the time when the letter of confirmation is signed.
Article 34 The place of effectiveness of an acceptance shall be the place of the establishment of the contract.
  If the contract is concluded in the form of data-telex, the main business place of the recipient shall be the place of establishment. If the recipient does not have a main business place, its habitual residence shall be considered to be the place of establishment. Where the parties agree otherwise, such agreement shall apply.
Article 35 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the place where both parties sign or affix their seals on the contract shall be the place of establishment.
Article 36 Where a contract is to be concluded in written form as required by relevant laws and administrative regulations or as agreed by the parties, and the parties failed to conclude the contract in written form, but one party has performed the principal obligation and the other party has accepted it, the contract is established.
Article 37 Where a contract is to be concluded in written form, if one party has performed its principal obligation and the other party has accepted it before signing or sealing of the contract, the contract is established.
Article 38 Where the State has issued a mandatory plan or a State purchasing order based on necessity,the relevant legal persons and the other organizations shall conclude a contract between them in accordance with the rights and obligations as stipulated by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.
Article 39 Where standard terms are adopted in concluding a contract, the party supplying the standard terms shall define the rights and obligations between the parties abiding by the principle of fairness, and shall inform the other party to note the exclusion or restriction of its liabilities in a reasonable way, and shall explain the standard terms upon request by the other
party.
  Standard terms are clauses that are prepared in advance for general and repeated use by one party, and which are not negotiated with the other party when the contract is concluded.
Article 40 When standard terms are under the circumstances stipulated in Articles 52 and 53 of this Law,or the party which supplies the standard terms exempts itself from its liabilities, increases the liabilities of the other party, and deprives the material rights of the other party, the terms shall be invalid.
Article 41 If a dispute over the understanding of the standard terms occurs, it shall be interpreted in accordance with common understanding. Where there are two or more kinds of interpretation, an interpretation unfavorable to the party supplying the standard terms shall prevail. Where the standard terms are inconsistent with non-standard terms, the latter shall prevail.
Article 42 The party shall be liable for damage if it is under one of the following circumstances in concluding a contract and thus causing losses to the other party:
(1) pretending to conclude a contract, and negotiating in bad faith;
(2) deliberately concealing important facts relating to the conclusion of the contract or providing false information;
(3) performing other acts which violate the principle of good faith.
Article 43 A trade secret the parties learn in concluding a contract shall not be disclosed or improperly used, no matter the contract is established or not. If the party discloses or improperly uses such trade secret and thus causing loss to the other party, it shall be liable for damages.
Chapter 3 Validity of Contracts
Article 44 The contract established according to law becomes effective upon its establishment.
  With regard to contracts that are subject to approval or registration as stipulated by relevant laws or administrative regulations, the provisions thereof shall be followed.
Article 45 The parties may agree on that the effectiveness of a contract be subject to certain conditions. A contract whose effectiveness is subject to certain conditions shall become effective when such conditions are accomplished. The contract with dissolving conditions shall become invalid when such conditions are satisfied.
  If a party improperly prevent the satisfaction of a condition for its own interests, the condition shall be regarded as having been accomplished. If a party improperly facilitates the satisfaction of a condition, such condition shall be regarded as not to have been satisfied.
Article 46 The parties may agree on a conditional time period as to the effectiveness of the contract. A contract subject to an effective time period shall come into force when the period expires. A contract with termination time period shall become invalid when the period expires.
Article 47 A contract concluded by a person with limited civil capacity of conduct shall be effective after being ratified afterwards by the person’s statutory agent, but a pure profit-making contract or a contract concluded which is appropriate to the person’s age, intelligence or mental health conditions need not be ratified by the person’s statutory agent.
  The counterpart may urge the statutory agent to ratify the contract within one month. It shall be regarded as a refusal of ratification that the statutory agent does not make any expression. A bona fide counterpart has the right to withdraw it before the contract is ratified.The withdrawal shall be made by means of notice.
Article 48 A contract concluded by an actor who as no power of agency, who oversteps the power of agency, or whose power of agency has expired and yet concludes it on behalf of the principal,shall have no legally binding force on the principal without ratification by the principal, and the actor shall be held liable.
  The counterpart may urge the principal to ratify it within one month. It shall be regarded as a refusal of ratification that the principal does not make any expression. A bona fide counterpart has the right to withdraw it before the contract is ratified. The withdrawal shall be made by means of notice.
Article 49 If an actor has no power of agency, oversteps the power of agency, or the power of agency has expired and yet concludes a contract in the principal’s name, and the counterpart has reasons to trust that the actor has the power of agency, the act of agency shall be effective.
Article 50 Where a statutory representative or a responsible person of a legal person or other organization oversteps his/her power and concludes a contract, the representative act shall be effective except that the counterpart knows or ought to know that he/she is overstepping his/her powers.
Article 51 Where a person having no right to disposal of property disposes of other persons’ properties,and the principal ratifies the act afterwards or the person without power of disposal has obtained the power after concluding a contract, the contract shall be valid.
Article 52 A contract shall be null and void under any of the following circumstances:
(1) a contract is concluded through the use of fraud or coercion by one party to damage the interests of the State;
(2) malicious collusion is conducted to damage the interests of the State, a collective or a third party;
(3) an illegitimate purpose is concealed under the guise of legitimate acts;
(4) damaging the public interests;
(5) violating the compulsory provisions of laws and administrative regulations.
Article 53 The following exception clauses in a contract shall be null and void:
(1) those that cause personal injury to the other party;
(2) those that cause property damages to the other party as result of deliberate intent or gross negligence.
Article 54 A party shall have the right to request the people’s court or an arbitration institution to modify or revoke the following contracts:
(1) those concluded as a result of significant misconception;
(2) those that are obviously unfair at the time when concluding the contract.
  If a contract is concluded by one party against the other party’s true intentions through the use of fraud, coercion, or exploitation of the other party’s unfavorable position, the injured party shall have the right to request the people’s court or an arbitration institution to modify or revoke it.
  Where a party requests for modification, the people’s court or the arbitration institution may not revoke the contract.
Article 55 The right to revoke a contract shall extinguish under any of the following circumstances:
(1) a party having the right to revoke the contract fails to exercise the right within one year from the day that it knows or ought to know the revoking causes;
(2) a party having the right to revoke the contract explicitly expresses or conducts an act to waive the right after it knows the revoking causes.
Article 56 A contract that is null and void or revoked shall have no legally binding force ever from the very beginning. If part of a contract is null and void without affecting the validity of the other parts, the other parts shall still be valid.
Article 57 If a contract is null and void, revoked or terminated, it shall not affect the validity of the dispute settlement clause which is independently existing in the contract.
Article 58 The property acquired as a result of a contract shall be returned after the contract is confirmed to be null and void or has been revoked; where the property can not be returned or the return is unnecessary, it shall be reimbursed at its estimated price. The party at fault shall compensate the other party for losses incurred as a result therefrom. If both parties are fault,each party shall respectively be liable.
Article 59 If the parties have maliciously conducted collusion to damage the interests of the State, a collective or a third party, the property thus acquired shall be turned over to the State or returned to the collective or the third party.
Chapter 4 Performance of Contracts
Article 60 Each party shall fully perform its own obligations as agreed upon.
  The parties shall abide by the principle of good faith, and perform obligations of notification, assistance, and confidentiality, etc. in accordance with the nature and purpose of the contract and the transaction practice.
Article 61 Where, after the contract becomes effective, there is no agreement in the contract between the parties on such contents as quality, price or remuneration, or place of performance etc., or such agreement is ambiguous, the parties may agree upon supplementary terms through consultation;if a supplementary agreement cannot be reached, such terms shall be determined in accordance with the relevant provisions of the contract or the transaction practices.
Article 62 Where certain contents agreed upon by the parties in the contract are ambiguous and cannot be determined in accordance with the provisions in Article 61 of this Law, the following provisions shall be applied:
(1) if quality requirement is not clear, performance shall be in accordance with the state standard or industry standard; absent any state or industry standard, performance shall be in accordance with the customary standard or any particular standard consistent with the purpose of the contract;
(2) if price or remuneration is not clear, performance shall be in accordance with the prevailing market price at the place of performance at the time the contract was concluded, and if adoption of a price commissioned by the government or based on government issued pricing guidelines is required by law, such requirement applies;
(3) where the place of performance is not clear, if the obligation is payment of money,performance shall be at the place where the payee is located; if the obligation is delivery of immovable property, performance shall be at the place where the immovable property is located;for any other subject matter, performance shall be effected at the place of location of the party fulfilling the obligations.
(4) if the time of performance is not clear, the obligor may perform, and the obligee may require performance, at any time, provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation;
(5) if the method of performance is not clear, performance shall be rendered in a manner which is conducive to realizing the purpose of the contract;
(6) if the responsibility for the expenses of performance is not clear, the party fulfilling the obligations shall bear the expenses.
Article 63 Where the government-fixed price or government-directed price is followed in a contract, if the said price is readjusted within the time limit for delivery as stipulated in the contract,the payment shall be calculated according to the price at the time of delivery. Where a party delays in delivering the subject matter, the original price shall be adopted if the price rises;and the new price shall be adopted if the price falls. Where a party delays in taking delivery of the subject matter or making payment, the new price shall be adopted if the price rises, and the original price shall be adopted if the price falls.
Article 64 Where the parties agree that the obligor shall perform the obligations to a third party, and the obligor fails to perform its obligations to such third party or its performance of the obligations is not in conformity with the agreement, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.
Article 65 Where the parties agree that a third party performs the obligations to the obligee, and the third party fails to perform the obligations or the performance is not in conformity with the agreement, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.
Article 66 Where both parties have obligations toward one another and there is no order of priority in respect of the performance of obligations, the parties shall perform the obligations simultaneously. Each party has the right to reject any demand by the other party for performance prior to the performance by the other party. If the performance of the obligations of the party who is to perform first is not in conformity with the agreement, the party who is perform later has the right to reject the other party’s demand for corresponding performance.
Article 67 Where both parties have obligations toward each other and there is an order of priority in respect of the performance, and the party who is to perform first fails to perform, the party who is to perform later has the right to reject the other party’s demand for performance. If the performance of the obligations of the party who is to perform first is not in conformity with the
agreement, the party who is to perform later has the right to reject the other party’s demand for corresponding performance.
Article 68 The party required to perform first may suspend its performance if it has conclusive evidence showing that the other party is under any of the following circumstances:
(1) its business has seriously deteriorated;
(2) it has engaged in transfer of assets or withdrawal of funds for the purpose of evading debts;
(3) it has lost its business creditworthiness;
(4) it is in any other circumstance which will or may cause it to lose its ability to perform.
  Where a party suspends performance without conclusive evidence, it shall be liable for breach of contract.
Article 69 If a party suspends its performance in accordance with the provisions of Article 68 of this Law, it shall timely notify the other party. If the other party provides appropriate assurance for its performance, the party shall resume performance. After performance was suspended, if the
other party fails to regain its ability to perform and fails to provide appropriate assurance within a reasonable time, the suspending party may terminate the contract.
Article 70 Where the obligee fails to notify the obligor of its separation, merger, or change of the domicile, thereby making it difficult for the obligor to perform its obligations, the obligor may suspend its performance or escrow the subject matter.
Article 71 The obligee may reject the obligor’s advance performance of its obligations, except that the advance performance does not harm the obligee’s interests.
  Any additional expense incurred by the obligee due to the obligor’s advance performance of its obligations shall be borne by the obligor.
Article 72 An obligee may reject the obligor’s partial performance, except that the partial performance of its obligations does not harm the obligee’s interests.
  Any additional expense incurred by the obligee due to the obligor’s partial performance of its obligations shall be borne by the obligor.
Article 73 Where the obligor is remiss in exercising its due creditor’s right, thereby harming the obligee’s interests, the obligee may petition the People’s Court for subrogation in its own name,except that the creditor’s right exclusively belongs to the obligor.
  The extent to which the subrogation rights can be exercised is limited to the obligee’s rights. The expenses necessary for the obligee to exercise such subrogation rights shall be borne by the obligor.
Article 74 Where the obligor waives its creditor’s right against a third party that is due or assigns its property without reward, thereby harming the obligee’s interests, the obligee may petition the People’s Court for cancellation of the obligor’s act. Where the obligor assigns its property
at a low price which is manifestly unreasonable, thereby harming the obligee’s interests, and the assignee is aware of the situation, the obligee may also petition the People’s Court for cancellation of the obligor’s act.
  The extent to which the right to cancel can be exercised is limited to the rights of the obligee. The expenses necessary for the obligee to exercise the right to cancel shall be borne by the obligor.
Article 75 The right to cancel shall be exercised within one year form the date the obligee knows or should have known of the matter for cancellation. Such right to cancel shall lapse if the obligee fails to exercise such rights within five years from the date of the occurrence of such act.
Article 76 Once a contract becomes effective, a party may not refuse to perform its obligations thereunder due to a change in its name, or its legal representative, the person in charge, or the person handling the contract.
Chapter 5 Modification and Assignment of Contracts
Article 77 A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.
  If the laws or administrative regulations so provide, approval and registration procedures for such modification shall be gone through in accordance with such provisions.
Article 78 Where an agreement by the parties on the contents of a modification is ambiguous, the contract shall be presumed as not having been modified.
Article 79 The obligee may assign its rights under a contract, in whole or in part, to a third party,except under the following circumstances:
(1) such rights may not be assigned in light of the nature of the contract;
(2) such rights may not be assigned according to the agreement between the parties;
(3) such rights may not be assigned according to the provisions of the laws.
Article 80 Where the obligee assigns its rights, it shall notify the obligor. Such assignment will have no effect on the obligor without notice thereof.
  A notice by the obligee to assign its rights shall not be revoked, unless such revocation is consented to by the assignee.
Article 81 Where the obligee assigns its right, the assignee shall acquire the collateral rights related to the principal rights, except that the collateral rights exclusively belong to the obligee.
Article 82 Upon receipt of the notice of assignment of rights, the obligor may assert against the assignee any defenses it has against the assignor.
Article 83 Upon receipt by the obligor of the notice of assignment of rights, the obligor shall have vested rights against the assignor, and if the rights of the obligor vest prior to or at the same time as the assigned rights, the obligor may claim an offset against the assignee.
Article 84 Where the obligor delegates its obligations under a contract in whole or in part to a third party, such delegation shall be subject to the consent of the obligee.
Article 85 Where the obligor delegates its obligation, the new obligor may exercise any defense that the original obligor had against the obligee.
Article 86 Where the obligor delegates its obligation, the new obligor shall assume the incidental obligations related to the main obligations, except that the obligations exclusively belong to the original obligor.
Article 87 Where the laws or administrative regulations stipulate that the assignment of rights or transfer of obligations shall undergo approval or registration procedures, such provisions shall be followed.
Article 88 Upon the consent of the other party, one party may transfer its rights together with its obligations under contract to a third party.
Article 89 Where the rights and obligations are transferred together, the provisions in Articles 79,Articles 81 to 83, and Articles 85 to 87 of this Law shall be applied.
Article 90 Where a party is merged after the contract has been concluded, the legal person or other organization established after the merger shall exercise the rights and obligations thereunder.Unless otherwise agreed upon by the obligor and obligee, the legal persons or other organizations that exist after the division shall jointly enjoy the rights and jointly assume the obligations
under the contract.
Chapter 6 Termination of Contractual Rights and Obligations
Article 91 The rights and obligations under a contract shall be terminated under any of the following circumstances:
(1) the obligations have been performed as agreed upon;
(2) the contract has been rescinded;
(3) the obligations have been offset against each other;
(4) the obligor has escrowed the subject matter accordance with the law;
(5) the obligee has released the obligor of its obligation;
(6) the rights and obligations have vested in one party;
(7) any other circumstances for termination as stipulated by the laws or agreed upon by the parties.
Article 92 After the termination of the rights and obligations under the contract, the parties shall observe the principal of honesty and good faith and perform the obligations of notification,assistance and confidentiality, etc. in accordance with relevant transaction practices.
Article 93 The parties may terminate a contract if they reach a consensus through consultation.
  The parties may agree upon conditions under which either party may terminate the contract.Upon satisfaction of the conditions, the party who has the right to terminate may terminate the contract.
Article 94 The parties to a contract may terminate the contract under any of the following circumstances:
(1) it is rendered impossible to achieve the purpose of contract due to an event of force majeure;
(2) prior to the expiration of the period of performance, the other party expressly states, or indicates through its conduct, that it will not perform its main obligation;
(3) the other party delayed performance of its main obligation after such performance has been demand, and fails to perform within a reasonable period;
(4) the other party delays performance of its obligations, or breaches the contract in some other manner, rendering it impossible to achieve the purpose of the contract;
(5) other circumstance as provided by law.
Article 95 Where the laws stipulates or the parties agreed upon the time limit to exercise the right to terminate the contract, and no party exercises it when the time limit expires, the said right shall be extinguished.
  Where neither the law stipulates nor the parties make an agreement upon the time limit to exercise the right to terminate the contract, and no party exercise it within a reasonable time period after being urged, the said right shall be extinguished.
Article 96 A party demanding termination of a contract in accordance with the provisions of Paragraph 2 of Article 93 and Article 94 of this Law shall notify the other party. The contract shall be terminated upon the receipt of the notice by the other party. If the other party objects to such termination, it may petition the People’s Court or an arbitration institution to adjudicate the
validity of the termination of the contract.
  Where the laws and administrative regulations so provide, the approval and registration procedures for the termination of the contract shall be gone through in accordance with such laws and regulations.
Article 97 After the termination of a contract, performance shall cease if the contract has not been performed; if the contract has been performed, a party may, in accordance with the circumstances of performance or the nature of the contract, demand the other party to restore such party to its original state or adopt other remedial measures, and such party shall have the right to demand compensation for damages.
Article 98 The termination of rights and obligations under a contact shall not affect the validity of clauses that related to the final settlement of accounts and winding-up.
Article 99 Where the parties are liable to one another for obligations that are due, and if the type and nature of the subject matter of such obligations are the same, any party may offset its own obligation against the obligation of the other party, except unless such offset is not allowed according to the laws and regulations or cannot be made given the nature of the contract.
  The party who claims such offset shall notify the other party. The notice shall become effective when it reaches the other party. The offset shall not be subject to any condition or time limit.
Article 100 Where the parties have obligations towards one another, and the type and nature of such obligations are different, the obligations may also be offset upon consensus between the parties after consultation.
Article 101 The obligor may escrow the subject matter under any of the following circumstances which render performance of the obligations difficult:,
(1) the obligee refuses to accept them without justified reasons;
(2) the whereabouts of the obligee are unknown;
(3) the obligee is deceased and the successor has not been determined, or the obligee has lost civil capacity and a guardian has not been appointed;
(4) other circumstance as provided for in the laws.
  Where the subject matter is not fit for escrow, or the cost of escrow is excessively high,the obligor may auction or sell the subject matter according to law, and escrow the proceeds therefrom.
Article 102 Unless the whereabouts of the obligee are unknown, the obligee shall notify the obligee, or the successor or guardian of the obligor immediately after the subject matter has been placed in escrow.
Article 103 Once the subject matter has been placed in escrow, the risk of damage to, destruction or loss of the subject matter shall be borne by the obligee. The obligee shall be entitled to any fruits of the subject matter during the escrow period. Escrow expenses shall be borne by the obligee.
Article 104 The obligee may claim the subject matter in escrow at any time, except that if the obligee has any due obligations toward the obligor, prior to the obligee’s performance of its obligations or the obligee’s provision of security for its performance, the escrow institution shall, at the request of the obligor, refuse the obligee’s claim of the escrowed subject matter.
  The right of the obligee to reclaim the subject matter in escrow shall lapse if it is not exercised within five years form the date the subject matter is placed in escrow, and the escrowed subject matter shall revert to the national treasury after the deduction of the escrow costs.
Article 105 Where an obligee releases the obligor of its own obligations, in whole or in part, the rights and obligations under the contract shall terminate in whole or in part.
Article 106 If the rights and obligations under a contract vest in one party, such rights and obligations thereunder shall terminate, unless they involve the interests of a third party.
Chapter 7 Liabilities for Breach of Contracts
Article 107 If a party fails to perform its obligations under a contract, or its performance fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, it shall bear the liabilities for breach of contract such as to continue to perform its obligations, to take remedial measures, or to compensate for losses.
Article 108 Where one party express explicitly or indicates by its conduct that it will not perform its obligations under a contract, the other party may demand it to bear the liability for the breach of contract before the expiry of the performance period.
Article 109 If a party fails to pay the price or remuneration, the other party may request it to make the payment.
Article 110 Where a party fails to perform the non-monetary obligations or its performance of non-monetary obligations fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, the other party may request it to perform it except under any of the following circumstances:
(1) it is unable to be performed in law or in fact;
(2) the subject matter of the obligation is unfit for compulsory performance or the performance expenses are excessively high;
(3) the obligee does not require performance within a reasonable time.
Article 111 Where the quality fails to satisfy the agreement, the breach of contract damages shall be borne in the manner as agreed upon by the parties. Where there is no agreement in the contract on the liability for breach of contract or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the damaged party may, in light of the nature of the subject matter and the degree of loss, reasonably choose to request the other party to bear the liabilities for the breach of contract such as repairing, substituting, reworking,returning the goods, or reducing the price or remuneration.
Article 112 Where a party fails to perform its obligations under the contract or its performance fails to conform to the agreement, and the other party still suffers from other damages after the performance of the obligations or adoption of remedial measures, such party shall compensate the other party for such damages.
Article 113 Where a party fails to perform its obligations under the contract or its performance fails to conform to the agreement and cause losses to the other party, the amount of compensation for losses shall be equal to the losses caused by the breach of contract, including the interests receivable after the performance of the contract, provided not exceeding the probable losses
caused by the breach of contract which has been foreseen or ought to be foreseen when the party in breach concludes the contract.
  The business operator who commits default activities in providing to the consumer any goods or services shall be liable for paying compensation for damages in accordance with the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests.

Article 114 The parties may agree that if one party breaches the contract, it shall pay a certain sum of liquidated damages to the other party in light of the circumstances of the breach, and may also agree on a method for the calculation of the amount of compensation for the damages incurred as a result of the breach.
  Where the amount of liquidated damages agreed upon is lower than the damages incurred, a party may petition the People’s Court or an arbitration institution to make an increase; where the amount of liquidated damages agreed upon are significantly higher than the damages incurred,a party may petition the People’s Court or an arbitration institution to make an appropriate reduction.
  Where the parties agree upon breach of contract damages in respect to the delay in performance, the party in breach shall perform the obligations after paying the breach of contract damages.
Article 115 The parties may agree that a party pay a deposit to the other party as a guaranty for the obligation in accordance withthe Security Law of the People’s Republic of China. Upon the obligor has performed its obligation, the deposit shall be offset against the price or refunded to the obligor. If the party paying the deposit fails to perform its obligations under the contract, such party has no right to demand for the return of the deposit; where the party accepting the deposit fails to perform its obligations under the contract, such party shall refund twice the value of the deposit.
Article 116 If the parties agree on both liquidated damages and a deposit, and one party is in breach,the other party may choose to apply either the provisions for liquidated damages or that for the deposit.
Article 117 A party who is unable to perform a contract due to force majeure is exempted from liability in part or in whole in light of the impact of the event of force majeure, except otherwise provided by law. Where an event of force majeure occurs after the party’s delay in performance,it is not exempted from such liability.
  For purposes of this Law, force majeure means any objective circumstances which are unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable.
Article 118 If a party is unable to perform a contract due to an event of force majeure, it shall timely notify the other party so as to mitigate the losses that may be caused to the other party, and shall provide evidence of such event of force majeure within a reasonable period.
Article 119 Where a party breached the contract, the other party shall take the appropriate measures to prevent the losses from increasing; where the other party’s failure to take appropriate measures results in additional losses, it cannot demand compensation for the additional losses.
  Any reasonable expense incurred by the other party in preventing additional losses shall be borne by the party in breach.
Article 120 If both parties breach a contract, each party shall bear its own respective liabilities.
Article 121 Where a party’s breach is attributable to a third party, it shall nevertheless be liable to the other party for breach. Any dispute between the party and such third party shall be resolved in accordance with the law or the agreement between the parties.
Article 122 Where the breach of contract by one party infringes upon the other party’s personal or property rights, the aggrieved party is entitled to choose to claim the assumption by the violating and infringing party of liabilities for breach of contract according to this Law, or to claim the assumption by the violating and infringing party of liabilities for infringement
according to other laws.
Chapter 8 Other Provisions
Article 123 Where other laws provide otherwise in respect of a contract, such provisions shall prevail.
Article 124 Where there are no explicitly provisions in the Specific Provisions of this Law or in any other law concerning a certain contract, the provisions in the General Provisions of this Law shall be applied, and reference may be made to the provisions in the Specific Provisions of this Law or in any other law that most closely relate to such contract.
Article 125 If any disputes arise between the parties over the understanding of any clause of the contract, the true meaning thereof shall be determined according to the words and sentences used in the contract, the relevant provisions in the contract, the purpose of the contract, the transaction practices and the principle of good faith.
  Where a contract is concluded in two or more languages and it is agreed that all versions are equally authentic, the words and sentences in each version are construed to have the same meaning. In case of any discrepancy in the words or sentences used in the different language versions, they shall be interpreted in light of the purpose of the contract.
Article 126 Parties to a foreign-related contract may select the applicable law for resolution of a contractual dispute, except as otherwise provided by law. Where parties to the foreign-related contract fails to select the applicable law, the contract shall be governed by the law of the country with the closest connection thereto.
  For a Chinese-foreign equity joint venture contract, Chinese-foreign contractual joint venture contract, or a contract for Chinese-foreign joint exploration and development of natural resources which is performed within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, the law of the People’s Republic of China shall be applied.
Article 127 Within the scope of their respective duties, the administrative department of industry and commerce and other relevant departments shall, in accordance with the relevant laws and administrative regulations, be responsible for monitoring and dealing with any illegal acts which, by taking advantage of contracts, harm the interests of the State or the interests of the
public and society; where such an act constitutes a crime, criminal liability shall be investigated in accordance with the law.
Article 128 The parties may resolve a contractual dispute through settlement or mediation.
  Where the parties do not wish to, or are unable to, resolve such dispute through settlement or mediation, the dispute may be submitted to the relevant arbitration institution for arbitration in accordance with the arbitration agreement between the parties. Parties to a foreign-related contract may apply to a Chinese arbitration institution or another arbitration institution for arbitration. Where the parties did not conclude an arbitration agreement, or the
arbitration agreement is invalid, either party may bring a suit to the People’s Court. The parties shall perform the judgments, arbitration awards or mediation agreements which have taken legal effect; if a party refuses to perform, the other party may request the People’s Court for enforcement.
Article 129 For a dispute arising from a contract for the international sale of goods or a technology import or export contract, the time limit for bringing a suit or applying for arbitration is four years, calculating from the date on which the party knows or ought to know the infringement on its rights. For a dispute arising from any other type of contract, the time limit for bringing a
suit or applying for arbitration shall be governed by the relevant law.
Specific Provisions
Chapter 9 Sales Contracts
Article 130 A sales contract is a contract whereby the seller transfers the ownership of a subject matter to the buyer, and the buyer pays the price for it.
Article 131 In addition to the terms set forth in Article 12 of this Law, a sales contract may also
contain such clauses as package manner, inspection standards and method, method of settlement and clearance, language adopted in the contract and its authenticity.
Article 132 The subject matter to be sold shall be owned by the seller or of that the seller shall have the right to dispose.
  Where the transfer of a subject matter is prohibited or restricted by laws or administrative regulation, such provision shall be applied.
Article 133 The ownership of a subject matter shall be transferred upon the delivery of the object,except as otherwise stipulated by law or agreed upon by the parties.
Article 134 The parties to a sales contract may agree that the ownership shall belong to the seller if the buyer fails to pay the price or perform other obligations.
Article 135 The seller shall perform the obligations of delivering to the buyer the subject matter or handing over the documents for the buyer to take possession of the subject matter and of transferring the ownership thereto.
Article 136 In addition to the document for taking possession, the seller shall deliver to the buyer the relevant documents and materials in accordance with the agreeme, nt or transaction practices.
Article 137 In a sale of any subject matter which contains intellectual property such as computer software, etc., the intellectual property in the subject matter does not belong to the buyer,except as otherwise provided by law or agreed upon by the parties.
Article 138 The seller shall deliver the subject matter by the time limit agreed upon. Where a time period for delivery is agreed upon, the seller may deliver at any time within the said time period.
Article 139 Where the time limit for delivery of the subject matter is not agreed upon between the parties or the agreement is not clear, the provisions of Article 61 and Item 4 of Article 62 shall be applied.
Article 140 Where a subject matter has been possessed by the buyer prior to the conclusion of the contract, the delivery time shall be the time when the contract becomes effective.
Article 141 The seller shall deliver the subject matter at the agreed place.
  Where there is no agreement between the parties as to the place to deliver the subject matter or such agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the following provisions shall be applied:
(1) if the subject matter needs carriage, the seller shall deliver the subject matter to the first carrier so as to hand it over to the buyer;
(2) if the subject matter does not need carriage, and the seller and buyer know the place of the subject matter when concluding the contract, the seller shall deliver the subject matter at such place; if the place is unknown, the subject matter shall be delivered at the business place of the seller when concluding the contract.
Article 142 The risk of damage to or loss of a subject matter shall be borne by the seller prior to the delivery of the subject matter and by the buyer after delivery, except as otherwise stipulated by law or agreed upon by the parties.
Article 143 Where a subject matter cannot be delivered at the agreed time limit due to any reasons attributable to the buyer, the buyer shall bear the risk of damage to or loss of the subject matter as of the date it breaches the agreement.
Article 144 Where the seller sells a subject matter delivered to a carrier for carriage and is in transit, unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties, the risk of damage to or missing of the subject matter shall be borne by the buyer as of the time of establishment of the contract.
Article 145 Where there is no agreement between the parties as to the place of delivery or such agreement is not clearly, and the subject matter needs carriage according to the provisions of Item 1 of Paragraph 2 of Article 141 of this Law, the risk of damage to or missing of the subject matter shall be borne by the buyer after the seller has delivered the subject matter to the first
carrier.
Article 146 Where the seller has placed the subject matter at the place of delivery in accordance with the agreement or in accordance with the provisions of Item 2 of Paragraph 2 of Article 141 of this Law, while the buyer fails to take delivery in breach of the agreement, the risk of damage to or missing of the subject matter shall be borne by the buyer as of the date of breach of the
agreement.
Article 147 The failure of the seller to deliver the documents and materials relating to the subject matter as agreed upon shall not affect the passing of the risk of damage to or missing of the subject matter.
Article 148 Where the quality of the subject matter does not conform to the quality requirements, making it impossible to achieve the purpose of the contract, the buyer may refuse to accept the subject matter or may terminate the contract. If the buyer refuses to accept the subject matter or terminate the contract, the risk of damage to or missing of the subject matter shall be borne by the seller.
Article 149 Where the risk of damage to or missing of the subject matter is borne by the buyer, the buyer’s right to demand the seller to bear liability for breach of contract because the seller’s performance of its obligations is not in conformity with the agreement shall not be affected.
Article 150 Unless otherwise provided by law, the seller shall have the obligation to warrant that no third party shall exercise against the buyer any rights with respect to the delivered subject matter.
Article 151 Where the buyer knows or ought to know, at the time of conclusion of the contract, that a third party has rights on the subject matter to be sold, the seller does not assume the obligation prescribed in Article 150 of this Law.
Article 152 Where the buyer has conclusive evidence to demonstrate that a third party may claim rights on the subject matter, it may suspend to pay the corresponding price, except where the seller provides a appropriate guaranty.
Article 153 The seller shall deliver the subject matter in compliance with the agreed quality requirements. Where the seller gives the quality specifications for the subject matter, the subject matter delivered shall comply with the quality requirements set forth therein.
Article 154 Where the quality requirements for the subject matter is not agreed between parties or such agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the provisions of Item 1 of Article 62 of this Law shall be applied.
Article 155 If the subject matter delivered by the seller fails to comply with the quality requirements,the buyer may demand the seller to bear liability for breach of contract in accordance with Article 111 of this Law.
Article 156 The seller shall deliver the subject matter packed in the agreed manner. Where there is no agreement on package manner in the contract or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the subject matter shall be packed in a general manner, and if no general manner, a package manner enough to protect the subject matter shall be adopted.
Article 157 Upon receipt of the subject matter, the buyer shall inspect it within the agreed inspection period. Where no inspection period is agreed, the buyer shall timely inspect the subject matter.
Article 158 Where the parties have agreed upon an inspection period, the buyer shall notify the seller of any non-compliance in quantity or quality of the subject matter within such inspection period.Where the buyer delayed in notifying the seller, the quantity or quality of the subject matter is deemed to comply with the contract.
  Where no inspection period is agreed, the buyer shall notify the seller within a reasonable period, commencing on the date when the buyer discovered or should have discovered the quantity or quality non-compliance. If the buyer fails to notify within a reasonable period or fails to notify within 2 years, commencing on the date when it received the subject matter, the quantity or quality of the subject matter is deemed to comply with the contract, except that if there is a warranty period in respect of the subject matter, the warranty period applies and supersedes such two year period.
  Where the seller knows or ought to know the non-compliance of the subject matter, the buyer is not subject to the time limits for notification prescribed in the preceding two paragraphs.
Article 159 The buyer shall pay the price in the agreed amount. Where the price is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the provisions of Article 61 and Item 2 of Article 62 shall be applied.
Article 160 The buyer shall pay the price at the agreed place. Where the place of payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the buyer shall make payment at the seller’s place of business, provided that if the
parties agreed that payment shall be conditional upon delivery of the subject matter or the document for taking delivery thereof, payment shall be made at the place where the subject matter, or the document for taking delivery thereof, is delivered.
Article 161 The buyer shall pay the price at the agreed time. Where the time for payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law,the buyer shall make payment at the same time it receives the subject matter or the document for
taking delivery thereof.
Article 162 Where the seller delivers the subject matter in a quantity greater than that agreed in the contract, the buyer may accept or reject the excess quantity. Where the buyer accepts the excess quantity, it shall pay the price based on the contract rate; where the buyer rejects the excess quantity, it shall timely notify the seller.
Article 163 The fruits of the subject matter belong to the seller if accrued before delivery, and to the buyer if accrued after delivery.
Article 164 Where a contract is terminated due to non-compliance of any main component of the subject matter, the effect of termination extends to the ancillary components. Where the contract is terminated due to non-compliance of any ancillary component of the subject matter, the effect of termination does not extend to the main components.
Article 165 Where the subject matter comprises of a number of components, one of which does not comply with the contract, the buyer may terminate the portion of the contract in respect of such component, provided that if severance of such component with the other components will significantly diminish the value of the subject matter, the party may terminate the contract in respect of such number of components.
Article 166 Where the seller is to deliver the subject matter in installments, if the seller fails to deliver one installment of the subject matter or the delivery fails to satisfy the terms of the contract so that the said installment cannot realize the contract purpose, the buyer may terminate the portion of the contract in respect thereof.
  If the seller fails to deliver one installment of the subject matter or the delivery fails to satisfy the terms of the contract so that the delivery of the subsequent installments of subject matter can not realize the contract purpose, the buyer may terminate the portion of the contract in respect of such installment as well as any subsequent installment.
  If the buyer is to terminate the portion of the contract in respect of a particular installment which is interdependent with all other installments, it may terminate the contract in respect of all delivered and undelivered installments.
Article 167 In a sale by installment payment, where the buyer fails to make payments as they became due,if the delinquent amount has reached one fifth of the total price, the seller may require payment of the full price from the buyer or terminate the contract. If the seller terminates the contract, it may require the buyer to pay a fee for its use of the subject matter.
Article 168 In a sale by sample, the parties shall place the sample under seal, and may specify the quality of the sample. The subject matter delivered by the seller shall comply with the sample as well as the quality specifications.
Article 169 In a sale by sample, if the buyer is not aware of a latent defect in the sample, the subject matter delivered by the seller shall nevertheless comply with the normal quality standard for a like item, even though the subject matter delivered complies with the sample.
Article 170 In a sale by trial, the parties may agree the trial period. Where a trial period is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, it shall be determined by the seller.
Article 171 In a sale by trial, the buyer may either purchase or reject the subject matter during the trial period. At the end of the trial period, the buyer is deemed to have made the purchase if it fails to demonstrate its intent to purchase or reject the subject matter.
Article 172 In a sale by tender, matters such as the rights and obligations of the parties and the tendering procedure, etc. are governed by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.
Article 173 In a sale by auction, matters such as the rights and obligations of the parties and the auctioning procedure, etc. are governed by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.
Article 174 If there are provisions in the law for other non-gratuitous contracts, such provisions shall apply; in the absence of such provisions, reference shall be made to the relevant provision on sales contract.
Article 175 Where the parties agree on a barter transaction involving transfer of title to the subject matters, such transaction shall be governed by reference to the relevant provisions on sales contracts.
Chapter 10 Contracts for Supply of Power, Water, Gas, Or Heat
Article 176 A power supply contract is a contract whereby the power supplier supplies power to the power customer, and the power consumer pay an electricity fee.
Article 177 The contents of a power supply contract include terms such as the method, quality, and time of power supply, and the capacity, location and nature of power use, and the metering method,electricity rate, the method of settlement of electricity fees, and the responsibility for maintenance of the power supply and use facilities, etc..
Article 178 The place of performance of a power supply contract shall be the place agreed upon by the parties, and if there is no agreement or the agreement is not clear, the place of performance shall be the boundary where ownership of the power supply facilities is divided.
Article 179 The power supplier shall supply power in a safe manner in accordance with the standards for power supply stipulated by the State and with the terms of the contract. Where the power supplier fails to supply power in a safe manner in accordance with the standards for power supply stipulated by the State and with the terms of the contract, thereby causing losses to the power
customer, it shall be liable for damages.
Article 180 Where the power supplier needs to suspend the power supply due to reasons such as planned maintenance or provisional inspection and repair of the power supply facilities, legally restriction on power, or illegal use of power by the power customer, etc., it shall notify the power customer in advance in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State. Where the power supplier suspends power supply without notifying the power customer in advance, thereby
causing losses to the power customer, it shall be liable for damages.
Article 181 Where the power supply is suspended due to a natural disaster or other causes, the power supplier shall make prompt repairs in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State. Where the power supplier fails to make prompt repair, thereby causing loss to the power customer, it shall be liable for damages.
Article 182 The power customer shall timely pay the electricity fees in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State and with the terms of the contract. Where the power customer delays in paying the electricity fees, it shall pay breach of contract damages in accordance with the contract. Where the power customer fails to pay the electricity fees and breach of contract damages within a reasonable time limit after receiving demand for payment, the power supplier may shut off the power supply in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the state.
Article 183 The power customer shall use power in a safe manner in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State and with the terms of the contract. Where the power customer fails to use power in a safe manner in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State and with the terms of the contract, thereby causing losses to the power supplier, it shall be liable for damages.
Article 184 A contract for the supply of water, gas or heat shall be governed by reference to the relevant provisions on power supply contracts.
Chapter 11 Gift Contracts
Article 185 A gift contract is a contract whereby the donor conveys his property to the donee gratuitously and the donee expresses his acceptance of the gift.
Article 186 Prior to the transfer of rights to the gift property, the donor may revoke the gift.
  The provisions of the preceding paragraph does not apply to any gift contract the nature of which serves the public interests or fulfills a moral obligation, such as disaster relief,poverty relief, etc., or any gift contract which has been notarized.
Article 187 Where conveyance of the gifted property is subject to such procedures as registration according to law, the relevant procedures shall be carried out.
Article 188 In the case of a gift contract the nature of which serves the public interests or fulfills a moral obligation, such as disaster relief, poverty relief, etc., or a gift contract which has been notarized, if the donor fails to deliver the gift property, the donee may require delivery.
Article 189 Where the gifted property is damaged or lost due to any intentional misconduct or gross negligence of the donor, he shall be liable for damages.
Article 190 A gift may be conditioned on an obligation.
  Where the gift is conditioned on an obligation, the donee shall perform his obligations in accordance with the contract.
Article 191 The donor is not liable for any defect in the gifted property. Where the gift is conditioned on an obligation, and the gifted property is defective, the donor has the same warranty obligations as a seller to the extent of the prescribed obligations.
  Where the donor intentionally omits to inform the donee of the defect or warranted the absence of any defect, thereby causing losses to the donee, he shall be liable for damages.
Article 192 Where the donee is in any of the following circumstances, the donor may revoke the gift:
(1) seriously harming the donor or any immediate family member thereof;
(2) failing to perform support obligations owed to the donor;
(3) failing to perform the obligations under the gift contract.
  The donor shall exercise its revocation right within one year after he knows, or ought to know, the cause for revocation.
Article 193 Where the donor is deceased or incapacitated due to the donee’s illegal act, his heir or legal agent may revoke the gift.
  The heir or legal agent of the donor shall exercise the right of revocation within six months after he knows, or ought to know, the cause for revocation.
Article 194 Upon revocation of the gift, the person with the revocation right may claim restitution of the gifted property from the donee.
Article 195 If the donor’s economic situation is deteriorated significantly, thereby seriously impacting on his business operation or family life, he may no longer perform the gift obligations.
Chapter 12 Contracts for Loan of Money
Article 196 A contract for loan of money is a contract whereby the borrower borrows a sum of money from the lender, and repays the borrowed money with interest thereon when it becomes due.
Article 197 A contract for loan of money shall be in writing, except where the loan is between natural persons who have agreed otherwise.
  The contents of a contract for loan of money include the terms such as the loan’s type,currency, purpose, amount, interest rate, term and method of repayment, etc.
Article 198 In entering into a contract for loan of money, the lender may require the borrower to provide a guaranty. The guaranty shall conform to the provisions of the Security Law of the People’s Republic of China.

Article 199 In entering into a contract for loan of money, the borrower shall provide true information concerning its business operation and financial condition in connection with the loan as required by the lender.
Article 200 No interest shall be deducted from the principal in advance. Where any interest amount is deducted from the principal in advance, the repayment of principal and calculation of interest shall be based on the actual amount borrowed.
Article 201 Where the lender fails to make the loan amount available on the agreed date and in the agreed amount, thereby causing losses to the borrower, it shall pay damages.
  Where the borrower fails to draw down on the agreed date and in the agreed amount, it shall nevertheless pay the interest on the agreed date and in the agreed amount.
Article 202 The lender may examine and monitor the application of the proceeds in accordance with the contract. The borrower shall periodically provide the lender with materials such as related financial and accounting reports, etc. in accordance with the contract.
Article 203 Where the borrower fails to use the proceeds for the prescribed purpose, the lender may withhold funding, call the loan, or terminate the contract.
Article 204 The interest rate on the loan provided by a financial institution engaged in lending operation shall be determined between the minimum and maximum rates fixed by the People’s Bank of China.
Article 205 The borrower shall pay the interest at the agreed time. Where the time of interest payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, if the loan term is less than one year, the interest shall be paid together with the principal at the time of repayment; if the loan term is one year or longer, the interest shall be paid at the end of each annual period, and where the remaining period is less than one year, the interest shall be paid together with the principal at the time of repayment.
Article 206 The borrower shall repay the principal at the agreed time. Where the time of repayment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the borrower may repay at any time; and the lender may demand repayment from the borrower within a reasonable time limit.
Article 207 Where the borrower fails to repay the loan at the agreed time, it shall pay delayed repayment interest in accordance with the contract or the relevant provisions of the State.
Article 208 Where the borrower prepays the loan, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the interest shall be calculated based on the actual period of loan.
Article 209 The borrower may apply to the lender for extension of the loan term before its maturity. Upon consent by the lender, the loan term may be extended.
Article 210 A contract for loan of money between natural persons becomes effective at the time the lender makes the loan amount available.
Article 211 Under a contract for loan of money between natural persons, if payment of interest is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the loan is deemed interest free.
  Under a contract for loan of money between natural persons, the interest rate on the loan may not contravene the relevant provisions of the State concerning limit on loan interest rate.
Chapter 13 Leasing Contracts
Article 212 A leasing contract is a contract whereby the lessor delivers to the lessee the lease item for it to use or accrue benefit from, and the lessee pays the rent.
Article 213 The contents of a leasing contract include terms such as the name, quantity and purpose of the lease item, lease term, amount of rent, time and method of rent payment, as well as maintenance and repair of the lease item, etc.
Article 214 The lease term may not exceed twenty years. If the lease term exceeds twenty years, the portion of the lease term beyond the initial twenty year period is invalid.
  At the end of the lease term, the parties may renew the lease, provided that the renewed term may not exceed twenty years commencing on the date of renewal.
Article 215 Where the lease term is six months or longer, the lease shall be in writing. If the parties fail to adopt a writing form, the lease is deemed a non-term lease.
Article 216 The lessor shall deliver the lease item to the lessee in accordance with the contract and shall, during the lease term, keep the lease item fit for the agreed purpose.
Article 217 The lessee shall use the lease item in the agreed manner. Where the manner of use of the lease item is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the lease item shall be used in a manner consistent with its nature.
Article 218 Where the lessee uses the lease item in the agreed manner or in a manner consistent with its nature, thereby causing wear and tear to the lease item, it is not liable for damages.
Article 219 Where the lessee fails to use the lease item in the agreed manner or in a manner consistent with its nature, thereby causing damage to it, the lessor may terminate the contract and claim damages.
Article 220 The lessor shall perform the obligations of maintenance and repair of the lease item, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
Article 221 Where the lease item needs maintenance or repair, the lessee may require the lessor to perform maintenance or repair within a reasonable time limit.
  If the lessor fails to fulfill its obligations of maintenance or repair, the lessee may maintain or repair the lease item on its own at the lessor’s expense. Where the lessee’s use of the lease item is impaired due to maintenance or repair thereof, the rent shall be reduced or the lease term shall be extended accordingly.
Article 222 The lessee shall keep the lease item with due care and shall be liable for damages if the lease item is damaged or lost due to improper care.
Article 223 Subject to consent of the lessor, the lessee may make improvement on or addition to the lease item.
  If the lessee makes improvement on or addition to the lease item without consent of the lessor, the lessor may require the lessee to restore the lease item to its original condition or claim compensation for the losses.
Article 224 Subject to consent of the lessor, the lessee may sublease the lease item to a third party.Where the lessee subleases the lease item, the leasing contract between the lessee and the lessor remains valid, and if the third party causes damage to the lease item, the lessee shall compensate for the losses.
  Where the lessee subleases the lease item without the consent of the lessor, the lessor may terminate the contract.
Article 225 During the lease term, any benefit accrued from the possession or use of the lease item belongs to the lessee, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
Article 226 The lessee shall pay the rent at the agreed time. Where the time of payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law,the rent shall be paid at the end of the lease term if it is less than one year; if the lease term is one year or longer, the rent shall be paid at the end of each annual period, and where the remaining period is less than one year, the rent shall be paid at the end of the lease term.
Article 227 Where the lessee fails to pay or delays in paying the rent without any reason, the lessor may require the lessee to pay the rent within a reasonable time limit. If the lessee fails to pay the rent at the end of such time limit, the lessor may terminate the contract.
Article 228 If due to any claim by a third party, the lessee is unable to use or accrue benefit from the lease item, the lessee may require reduction in rent or refuse to pay rent.
  In case of any claim by a third party, the lessee shall timely notify the lessor.
Article 229 Any change of ownership to the lease item does not affect the validity of the leasing contract.
Article 230 Where the lessor is to sell a dwelling unit under a lease, it shall give the lessee a notice within a reasonable time limit before the sale, and the lessee has the right of first refusal under the same conditions.
Article 231 Where the lease item is damaged or lost in part or in whole due to any reason not attributable to the lessee, the lessee may require reduction in rent or refuse to pay rent; where the purpose of the contract can not be achieved due to damage to or loss of the lease item in part or in whole, the lessee may terminate the contract.
Article 232 Where the term of a lease is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, such lease is deemed a non-term lease.Either party may terminate the contract at any time, provided that the lessor shall give the lessee a reasonable advance notice before it terminates the contract.
Article 233 Where the lease item endangers the safety or health of the lessee, the lessee may terminate the contract at any time even if the lessee knows the lease item does not meet the quality requirements when concluding the contract.
Article 234 Where the lessee is deceased during the term of a dwelling unit lease, the person jointly living in the unit with the lessee while the lessee is alive may continue leasing it on the terms of the original leasing contract.
Article 235 The lessee shall return the lease item at the end of the lease term. The returned lease item shall be in a condition resulting from its use in the agreed manner or in a manner consistent with its nature.
Article 236 Upon expiration of the lease term, if the lessee continues to use the lease item without objection by the lessor, the original leasing contract remains effective, provided that it becomes a non-term lease.
Chapter 14 Financial Leasing Contracts
Article 237 A financial leasing contract is a contract whereby the lessor, upon purchase of the lessee-selected lease item from a lessee-selected seller, provides the lease item to the lessee for its use, and the lessee pays the rent.
Article 238 The contents of a financial leasing contract include terms such as the name, quantity,specifications, technical performance, and method of inspection of the lease item, the lease term, the rental components and the time, method and currency of payment, as well as the ownership of the lease item at the end of the lease term, etc.
  A financial leasing contract shall be concluded in writing.
Article 239 Under the sales contract concluded by the lessor according to the lessee’s selection of the seller and the lease item, the seller shall deliver the subject matter to the lessee in accordance with the contract, and the lessee enjoys the rights of the buyer in respect of taking delivery of the subject matter.
Article 240 The lessor, the seller and the lessee may agree that any claim arising from the seller’s failure in the performance of its obligations under the sales contract will be made by the lessee. Where the lessee makes such a claim, the lessor shall provide assistance.
Article 241 Without the consent of the lessee, the lessor may not amend any lessee-related term in the sales contract concluded by it according to the lessee’s selection of the seller and the lease item.
Article 242 The lessor shall be entitled to the ownership of the lease item. In case the lessee goes bankruptcy, the lease item is not part of its bankruptcy assets.
Article 243 Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the rent under a financial leasing contract shall be determined based on the major portion of or full costs of purchasing the lease item and the lessor’s reasonable profit.
Article 244 Where the lease item does not comply with the contract or is not fit for the intended purpose, the lessor is not liable, except where the lessee relies on the skills of the lessor in selecting the lease item or the lessor interferes with the selection thereof.
Article 245 The lessor shall give warranty in respect of the lessee’s possession and use of the lease item.
Article 246 If in the possession of the lessee, the lease item causes personal injury or property damage to a third party, the lessor is not liable.
Article 247 The lessee shall keep and use the lease item with due care. While in possession of the lease item, the lessee shall perform the obligations of maintenance and repair thereof.
Article 248 The lessee shall pay the rent in accordance with the contract. Where the lessee fails to pay the rent within a reasonable time limit after receiving the demand for payment from the lessor,the lessor may require payment of the full rent; or it may terminate the contract and take back the lease item.
Article 249 Where the parties agree that the lease item shall belong to the lessee at the expiry of the lease term, the lessee has paid the majority of the rent but is unable to pay the remaining rent,and the lessor terminates the contract for this reason and takes back the lease item, if the value of the lease item taken back exceeds the rent and other expenses which the lessee owes to the lessor, the lessee may request the lessor to return a certain part.
Article 250 The lessor and the lessee may agree on the ownership of the lease item at the expiry of the lease term. Where ownership of the lease item is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the ownership of the lease item shall belong to the lessor.
Chapter 15 Contracts for Work
Article 251 A contract for work is a contract whereby the contractor shall, in light of the requirements of the ordering party, complete certain work and deliver the results therefrom, and the ordering party pays the remuneration therefor.
  Work includes processing, ordering, repairing, duplicating, testing, inspecting, etc..
Article 252 The contents of a contract for work shall contain such clauses as the subject matter,quantity, quality, remuneration, method of the work, supply of materials, term of performance,standards and method of inspection.
Article 253 The contractor shall use its own equipment, skills and labor to complete the main part of the work, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
  Where the contractor assigns the contracted work to a third party for completion, the contractor shall be responsible to the ordering party in respect of the work results completed by the ordering party. Where the assignment is not approved by the ordering party, the ordering party may terminate the contract.
Article 254 The contractor may assign some ancillary work contracted to a third party for completion.
Where the contractor assigns some ancillary work to a third party for completion, the contractor hall be responsible to the ordering party for the work result completed by a third party.
Article 255 Where the contractor is to supply the materials, the contractor shall select the materials in accordance with the contract and shall make such materials available for inspection by the ordering party.
Article 256 Where the ordering party is to supply the materials, it shall supply the materials in accordance with the contract. The contractor shall timely inspect the materials supplied by the ordering party, and if it discovers that they do not conform to the agreement in the contract, it shall timely notify the ordering party to replace them or supply what is lacking or take other remedial measures.
  The contractor may not replace the materials supplied by the ordering party without authorization, and may not replace any components which do not need to be repaired.
Article 257 Where the contractor discovers that the drawings or technical requirements provided by the ordering party are unreasonable, it shall timely notify the ordering party. Where any losses are caused to the contractor due to the indolent reply of the ordering party and other reasons, the ordering party shall be liable for making compensation.
Article 258 Where the ordering party changes its requirements for the contracted work while the work is under way, thereby causing losses to the contractor, the ordering party shall be liable for making compensation.
Article 259 Where the performance of the contracted work requires assistance of the ordering party, the ordering party shall have the obligation to provide assistance. Where the contracted work is unable to be completed due to the ordering party’s failure in fulfilling its obligation of assistance, the contractor may urge the ordering party to perform its obligation within a
reasonable time limit and may extend the term of its performance; where the ordering party fails to perform such obligation within the time limit, the contractor may terminate the contract.
Article 260 In the period of working, the contractor shall accept the necessary supervision over and inspection of the work by the ordering party. The ordering party may not obstruct the normal work of the contractor with the supervision and inspection.
Article 261 Upon the completion of the contracted work, the contractor shall deliver the work results to the ordering party and shall submit necessary technical materials and the relevant quality certificate. The ordering party shall conduct acceptance inspection of the work results.
Article 262 Where the work results delivered by the contractor fail to meet the quality requirements, the ordering party may request the contractor to bear the liabilities for the breach of contract by way of repairing, remaking, reducing remuneration, or making compensation.
Article 263 The ordering party shall pay the remuneration at the agreed time limit. Where the time limit of payment is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the ordering party shall pay it at the time when the contractor delivers the work results; where the work results are partially delivered, the ordering party
shall make payment accordingly.
Article 264 Where the ordering party fails to pay the remuneration or cost for the materials, etc. to the contractor, the contractor is entitled to lien upon the work results, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 265 The contractor shall keep the materials supplied by the ordering party and the completed work results with due care, and shall be liable for damages in case of any damage or losses due to improper care.
Article 266 The contractor shall keep the relevant information confidential as required by the ordering party, and may not retain any replica or technical material without permission of the ordering party.
Article 267 Joint contractors are jointly and severally liable to the ordering party, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 268 The ordering party may terminate the contract at any time, but it shall bear the liability for making compensation for losses, if the contractor suffers losses therefrom.
Chapter 16 Contracts for Construction Projects
Article 269 A contract for construction project is a contract whereby the contractor performs project construction, and the developer pays the price.
  Contracts for construction projects include contracts for survey, design, and construction.
Article 270 A contract for construction project shall be in written form.
Article 271 Tendering for a construction project shall be conducted in an open, fair and impartial manner in accordance with the relevant laws.
Article 272 The developer may enter into a contract for construction project with a prime contractor, or enter into contracts for survey, design, and construction with the surveyor, designer, and constructor respectively.
  The developer may not divide a construction project which should be completed by one contractor into several parts and contract them out to several contractors.
  Subject to consent by the developer, the prime contractor or the contractor for survey,design, or construction may delegate part of the contracted work to a third party. The third party and the prime contractor or the contractor for survey, design, or construction shall be jointly and severally liable to the developer in respect of the work product completed by such third party. The contractor may not assign in whole to any third party the contracted construction project, or divide the whole contracted construction project into several parts and separately assign each part to a third party under the guise of sub-contracting.
  The contractor is prohibited from sub-contracting any part of the project to an entity not appropriately qualified. A sub-contractor is prohibited from further sub-contracting its contracted work. The main structure of the construction project must be constructed by the contractor itself.
Article 273 A contract for a major state construction project shall be concluded in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the state and in compliance with the state-approved documents such as the investment plan and feasibility studies report, etc.
Article 274 A contract for survey or design includes terms such as the time limit for submission of the relevant basic information and documents (including budget estimate), the quality requirements,fees, and other conditions of cooperation, etc.
Article 275 A construction contract includes terms such as the scope of the project, the construction period, the time for commencement and completion of any work to be commissioned in the interim,the quality of the project, the cost of the project, the time for delivery of technical materials, the responsibilities for the supply of materials and equipment, the appropriation of
funds and settlement of account, inspection upon completion of the project, the scope and period of quality warranty, and cooperation between the parties, etc.
Article 276 Where the construction project is subject to supervision, the developer shall enter into an agency appointment contract for project supervision with a project supervisor in writing. The rights, obligations and associated legal liabilities of the developer and supervisor shall be prescribed in accordance with the provisions hereof concerning agency appointment contracts and the provisions of other relevant laws and administrative regulations.
Article 277 Provided that the developer does not interfere with the normal operation of the contractor,it may inspect the progress and quality of the work at any time.
Article 278 In the case of concealed work, the contractor shall give the developer notice for inspection prior to concealment. Where the developer fails to timely conduct inspection, the contractor may extend the relevant project milestones, and is entitled to claim damages for work stoppage or work slowdown, etc.
Article 279 Upon completion of the construction project, the developer shall conduct acceptance inspection according to the construction drawings and specifications, and in accordance with the rules of construction inspection and quality inspection standard prescribed by the state. Once the construction project has passed the acceptance inspection, the developer shall pay the
prescribed price and accept the construction project.
  The completed construction project may be put into use only after it has passed the acceptance inspection; if the construction project has not been inspected or has failed the inspection, it may not be put into use.
Article 280 Where the developer sustains any loss from construction delay due to non-compliance of the survey or design or due to delayed delivery of the survey or design documents, the surveyor or the designer shall continue to improve the survey or design, reduce or forgo the survey fee or design fee, and pay damages.
Article 281 Where the construction project fails to meet the prescribed quality requirements due to any reason attributable to the constructor, the developer is entitled to require the constructor to repair, re-construct or make alteration free of charge within a reasonable time. Where delivery
of the project is delayed due to such repair, re-construction or alteration, the constructor shall be liable for breach of contract.
Article 282 Where the construction project caused personal injury and property damage during its reasonable usage period due to any reason attributable to the contractor, the contractor shall be liable for damages.
Article 283 Where the developer fails to provide raw materials, equipment, site, funds, or technical information at the prescribed time and in accordance with the contractual requirements, the contractor may extend the relevant project milestones, and is entitled to claim damages for work stoppage or slowdown, etc.
Article 284 If an ongoing project is stopped or delayed due to any reason attributable to the developer,the developer shall take the appropriate measures to make up or mitigate the loss, and shall indemnify the contractor for its loss and out-of-pocket expenses arising from resulting work stoppage, slowdown, reshipment, re-dispatch of mechanical equipment, and excess inventory of materials and assemblies, etc.
Article 285 Where in the course of survey or design, any repeating work, work stoppage or change of design occurs due to the developer’s change of plan, the incorrect information provided by it, or its failure to provide the working conditions necessary for the survey or design at the prescribed time, the developer shall increase the fees in light of the actual amount of work done
by the surveyor or designer.
Article 286 If the developer failed to pay the price in accordance with the contract, the contractor may demand payment from the developer within a reasonable period. Where the developer fails to pay the price at the end of such period, the contractor may enter into an agreement with the developer to liquidate the project, and may also petition the People’s Court to auction the
project in accordance with the law, unless such project is not fit for liquidation or auction in light of its nature.
  The construction project price shall be paid in priority out of proceeds from the liquidation or auction of the project.
Article 287 A matter not provided for in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provision governing contracts of hired works.
Chapter 17 Transportation Contracts
Section One General Provisions
Article 288 A transportation contract is a contract whereby the carrier carries passengers or cargoes from the starting place of carriage to the agreed destination, and the passenger, consignor or consignee pays for the ticket-fare or freight.
Article 289 A carrier engaged in public transportation may not refuse the normal and reasonable carriage request of a passenger or consignor.
Article 290 The carrier shall safely carry the passengers or cargoes to the agreed destination within the agreed time or within a reasonable time.
Article 291 The carrier shall carry the passengers or cargoes to the agreed destination via the agreed route or the customary carriage route.
Article 292 A passenger, a consignor or a consignee shall pay the ticket-fare or freight. Where the carrier fails to carry the passengers or the cargoes via the agreed or customary carriage route,thereby increasing the ticket-fare or freight, the passenger, consignor or consignee may refuse to pay any increased portion thereof.
Section Two Passenger Transportation contracts
Article 293 A passenger transportation contract is established upon the carrier’s delivery of the passenger ticket to the passenger, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties or there are other transaction practices.
Article 294 The passenger shall board the means of transportation with a valid passenger ticket. If the passenger boards without a ticket, exceeds the distance paid for, takes a higher class or higher berth than booked, or boards with an invalid ticket, he shall make up the payment for an appropriate ticket, and the carrier may charge an additional payment in accordance with the relevant provisions. Where the passenger fails to pay the ticket-fare, the carrier may refuse to carry.
Article 295 Where the passenger is unable to board the means of transportation at the time stated on the passenger ticket due to any reason attributable to himself, he shall undergo the formalities for ticket cancellation and refund or for ticket modification within the agreed period. Where the passenger fails to do so within the time period, the carrier may refuse to refund the ticket-fare, and no longer bear the obligation of carriage.
Article 296 In the course of carriage, the passenger’s carry-on luggage shall be within the agreed limit of quantity. Where the luggage exceeds the agreed limit of quantity, the additional luggage shall be checked in.
Article 297 The passenger may not bring with him or pack in the luggage such dangerous articles as are flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive as well as those that might endanger the safety of life and property on board the means of transportation or other contraband articles.
  Where the passenger violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may unload, destroy or turn over to the relevant authority the contraband articles. Where the passenger insists on carrying in person or placing in his luggage the contraband articles, the carrier shall refuse to carry.
Article 298 The carrier shall timely inform the passenger of any major causes hindering the normal carriage and the matters which shall be noted for purpose of safety carriage.
Article 299 The carrier shall carry the passenger according to the time and the carriage schedule stated on the passenger ticket. Where the carrier delays in carriage, it, shall, upon request by the passenger, either arrange the passenger to take other flights or numbers or refund the ticket-fare.
Article 300 Where the carrier unilaterally changes the means of transportation, thereby lowering the standards of service, it shall, upon request by the passenger, refund the ticket-fare or lower the price of the ticket; where the service standards are enhanced, no additional ticket-fare
shall be charged.
Article 301 In the course of carriage, the carrier shall gives its best efforts to assist the passenger who is seriously ill, or who is giving birth to a child or whose life is at risk.
Article 302 The carrier shall be liable for damages in case of injury or death of the passenger in the course of carriage, except where such injury or death is attributable to the passenger’s own health, or the carrier proves that such injury or death is caused by the passenger’s intentional misconduct or gross negligence.
  The provisions in the preceding paragraph apply to a passenger who is exempted from buying a ticket or holds a preferential ticket pursuant to the relevant provisions, or who is permitted by the carrier to be on board without a ticket.
Article 303 Where an article that the passenger takes with him on board is damaged or destroyed during the period of carriage, the carrier shall be liable for the damage if it has committed faults.
  Where the passenger’s check-in luggage is damaged or lost, the relevant provisions on the carriage of cargoes shall be applied.
Section Three Cargo Transportation contracts
Article 304 In undergoing the formalities for cargoes, the consignor shall precisely indicate to carrier the name of the consignee or the consignee by order, the name, nature weight, amount and the place for taking delivery of the cargoes, and other information necessary for cargo carriage.
  Where the carrier suffers from damage due to untrue declaration or omission of important information by the consignor, the consignor shall be liable for damages.
Article 305 Where carriage of the cargo is subject to such procedures as examination and approval or inspection, the consignor shall submit to the carrier the documents of fulfillment of the relevant procedure.
Article 306 The consignor shall pack the cargo in the agreed manner. Where the packing manner is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the provisions of Article 156 of this Law shall be applied.
  Where the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry.
Article 307 In consigning any dangerous articles which are inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, the consignor shall, in accordance with the provisions of the State on the carriage of dangerous articles, properly pack the dangerous articles and affix thereon signs and labels
for dangerous articles, and shall submit the written papers relating to the number and measures of precaution to the carrier
  If the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry, and may also take corresponding measures to avoid losses, expenses thus caused shall be borne by the consignor .
Article 308 Prior to carrier’s delivery of the cargoes to the consignee, the consignor may request the carrier to suspend the carriage, return the cargoes, change the destination or deliver the cargoes to another consignee, but it shall compensate the carrier for any losses thus caused.
Article 309 Upon arrival of the cargoes, if the carrier has the knowledge of the consignee, it shall timely notify the consignee and the consignee shall timely take delivery. Where the consignee takes delivery exceeding the time limit, it shall pay such expenses as storage of the goods, etc.
Article 310 Upon taking delivery of the cargoes, the consignee shall inspect the cargoes at the agreed time. Where the time for inspection is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the consignee shall inspect the cargo within a reasonable time limit. The consignee’s failure to raise any objection on the quantity of, or any damage to, the cargoes within the agreed time limit or within a reasonable time limit is deemed prima facie evidence of delivery by the carrier in compliance with the description in the transportation documents.
Article 311 The carrier is liable for damages in case of damage to or loss of the cargoes in the course of carriage, provided that it is not liable for damages if it proves that such damage to or loss of the cargoes is caused by force majeure, the intrinsic characteristics of the cargoes,reasonable depletion, or the fault of the consignor or consignee.
Article 312 Where the parties agree on the amount of damages in case of damage to or loss of the cargoes,the damages payable is the agreed amount; if the amount of damages is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, it shall be calculated on the basis of the prevailing market price at the destination when the cargoes are or ought to be delivered. Where a law or administrative regulation provides otherwise in respect of the measures for the calculation of damages and of the ceiling of the amount of damages, these provisions shall be applied.
Article 313 Where two or more carriers jointly carry the cargoes using the same means of transportation,the carrier contracting with the consignor shall be responsible for the whole course of carriage.Where the losses occurred at a particular segment, the carrier contracting with the consignor and the carrier for such segment are jointly and severally liable.
Article 314 Where the cargoes are lost in the course of carriage due to force majeure, if the freight has not been collected, the carrier may not request the payment thereof; if the freight has been collected, the consignor may request the refund of the freight.
Article 315 Where the consignor or consignee fails to pay the freight, storage fees and other carriage expenses, the carrier is entitled to lien on the relevant carried cargoes, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 316 Where the consignee is not clear or refuses to take delivery of the cargoes without justified reasons, the carrier may place the cargo in escrow according to the provisions of Article 101 of this Law.
Section Four Multi-modal Transportation contract
Article 317 A multi-modal carriage operator is responsible for performing, or arranging for performance of, the multi-modal transportation contract, and it enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations of a carrier throughout the course of carriage.
Article 318 The multi-modal carriage operator and the segment carriers may enter into agreements on their respective duties concerning each segment, provided that the obligations of the multi-modal carriage operator with respect to the entire course of carriage are not affected by any such agreement.
Article 319 Upon receipt of the cargo delivered by the consignor, the multi-modal carriage operator shall issue thereto a multi-modal carriage document. The multi-modal carriage document may either be assignable or non-assignable as required by the consignor.
Article 320 Where the multi-modal carriage operator sustains any loss due to the fault of the consignor in the course of consigning the cargo, the consignor shall be liable for damages notwithstanding its subsequent assignment of the multi-modal carriage document.
Article 321 Where damage to or loss of the cargo occurred within a particular segment of the course of a multi-modal carriage, the multi-modal carriage operator’s liability for damages and any limitation thereon are governed by the applicable transportation law of the jurisdiction which such segment is under. Where the segment in which the cargo is damaged or lost cannot be determined, the liability for damages shall be borne in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.
Chapter 18 Technology Contracts
Section One General Provisions
Article 322 A technology contract is a contract the parties conclude for establishing their rights and obligations in respect of the development or transfer of technology, or in respect of technical consulting or service.
Article 323 The conclusion of a technology contract shall be conducive to the advancement of science and technology, and expedite the conversion, application and dissemination of scientific and technological achievements.
Article 324 The contents of a technology contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and shall contain the following clauses in general:
(1) project name;
(2) contents, scope and requirement of the subject matter;
(3) the plan, schedule, period, place, territory and method of performance;
(4) confidentiality of technical information and materials;
(5) allocation of responsibilities for risks;
(6) ownership of the technology and allocation of benefits accrued therefrom;
(7) standard applicable to and method of acceptance test;
(8) price, remuneration or licensing fee and the method of payment;
(9) liquidated damages or method for calculation of damages;
(10) method of dispute resolution;
(11) definition of terms and phrases.
  The parties may agree to include the following materials relating to the performance of the contract as an integral part thereof: technical background information, feasibility studies and technical evaluation report, project task matrix and project plan, technical standard, technical specifications, original design and technique documents, as well as other technical documentation.
  Where the technology contract involves any patent, it shall set forth the name of the invention or innovation, the patent applicant and the patentee, the date of application, the application number, patent number and the term of the patent.
Article 325 The method for payment of the price, remuneration or licensing fee under a technology contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, who may agree upon lump-sum payment based on one-time calculation or installment payment based on one-time calculation, and may also agree upon royalty payment or royalty payment plus advance payment of initial fee.
  Where a royalty payment method is agreed upon, the royalty may be calculated as a percentage of the product price, any increase in product value resulting from exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret, profit, or product sales, and may also be calculated by any other method agreed upon by the parties. The royalty rate may be fixed or subject to annual increase or decrease.
  Where a royalty payment is agreed, the parties shall agree in the contract a method for inspection of the relevant accounting books.
Article 326 Where the right to use and the right to transfer job-related technology belong to a legal person or an organization of any other nature, the legal person or organization may enter into a technology contract in respect of such job-related technology. The legal person or organization shall reward or remunerate the individual(s) who developed the technology with a percentage of
the benefits accrued from the use and transfer of the job-related technology. Where the legal person or organization is to enter into a technology contract for the transfer of the job-related technology, the individual who accomplished this technological achievement shall have the priority to be the transferee under the same conditions.
  A job-related technology is a technology developed in the course of completing a task assigned by a legal person or an organization of any other nature, or developed by primarily utilizing the material and technical resources thereof.
Article 327 The right to use and the right to transfer non-job-related technology belong to the individual developer, who may enter into a technology contract in respect thereof.
Article 328 The individual who developed the technology is entitled to identify himself as the developer in the documentation related thereto, and to receive honor certificate and reward.
Article 329 A technology contract which illegally monopolizes technology, impairs technological advancement or infringes on the technology of a third party is invalid.
Section Two Technology Development Contract
Article 330 A technology development contract is a contract concluded in respect of the development of a new technology, product, technique or material and the associated system.
  Technology development contracts include commissioned development contracts and cooperative development contracts.
  A technology development contract shall be in written form.
  A contract on the conversion of a scientific achievement with potential for industrial application is governed by reference to the provisions on technology development contracts.
Article 331 The commissioning party under a commissioned development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, provide development funds and pay remuneration; supply technical materials and original data; complete its tasks of cooperation; and accept the developed technology.
Article 332 The developer under a commissioned development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, prepare and implement the development plan; use development funds in a reasonable manner; timely complete the development and deliver the developed technology, as well as provide the relevant technical materials and necessary technical guidance so as to help the commissioning party master the technology developed.
Article 333 Where the commissioning party breaches the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.
Article 334 Where the developer breaches the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.
Article 335 Parties to a cooperative development contract shall, in accordance with the contract, make investment, including investment in the form of technology; participate in the development by performing their respective tasks; and cooperate with each other in the development.
Article 336 Where a party to a cooperative development contract breaches the contract, thereby causing stoppage, delay or failure of the development, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.
Article 337 Where the technology which is the subject matter of a technology development contract is made public by a third party, thereby making the performance of the technology development contract meaningless, the parties may terminate the contract.
Article 338 If, in the course of implementing a technology development contract, the development is failed in whole or in part due to any insurmountable technical difficulty, allocation of the responsibility for such risk shall be agreed upon by the parties. Where the allocation of responsibility for such risk is not agreed upon or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, it shall be shared by the parties in a reasonable manner.
  Where a party discovers any circumstance which may lead to the failure of the development in whole or in part as described in the preceding paragraph, it shall timely notify the other party and take the appropriate measures to mitigate loss; where the party fails to timely notify the other party and take the appropriate measures, thereby enlarging the losses, it shall be liable
for the enlarged losses.
Article 339 Unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties, the right to apply for patent on the invention or innovation resulting from a commissioned development belongs to the developer. Where the developer is granted a patent, the commissioning party may exploit such patent free of charge.
  Where the developer is to assign the right to apply for patent on the Invention or innovation resulting from the commissioned development, the commissioning party shall have the right to priority in acquiring such right under the same conditions.
Article 340 Unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties, the right to apply for patent on the invention or innovation resulting from a cooperative development belongs to the parties therein jointly.Where a party is to assign its joint patent application right, the other parties shall have the right to priority in acquiring such right under the same conditions.
  Where a party in the cooperative development s a waiver of its joint patent
application right, the other party may apply by itself, or the other parties may jointly apply,as the case may be. Where a patent is granted on the invention or innovation, the party waiving its patent application right may exploit such patent free of charge.
  If a party in the cooperative development does not consent to the application for patent, the other party or parties may not apply for patent.
Article 341 The right to use and transfer the technical secret resulting from a commissioned or cooperative development, and the method for allocation of benefits accrued therefrom shall be agreed upon by the parties. Where such matters are not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can they be determined in accordance Article 61 of this Law, all of the parties are entitled to use and transfer the technology, provided that the developer in a commissioned development may not transfer the technology to a third party before it delivers the technology to the commissioning party.
Section Three Technology Transfer Contracts
Article 342 Technology transfer contracts include contracts for the assignment of patent, assignment of patent application right, transfer of technical secrets, and patent licensing.
  A technology transfer contract shall be in written form.
Article 343 A technology transfer contract may set forth the scope of exploitation of the patent or the use of the technical secret by the transferor and the transferee, provided that it may not restrict technological competition and technological development.
Article 344 A patent licensing contract is only valid during the term of the patent. Where the term of the patent expires or the patent is invalidated, the patentee may not enter into a patent licensing contract with any other person in respect thereof.
Article 345 The transferor under a patent licensing contract shall, in accordance with the contract,license the patent to the transferee, deliver the technical materials related to the exploitation of the patent, and provide the necessary technical guidance.
Article 346 The transferee under a patent licensing contract shall exploit the patent in accordance with the contract and may not license the patent to any third party except as provided for in the contract; and shall pay the licensing fee in accordance with the contract.
Article 347 The transferor under a contract for transfer of technical secret shall, in accordance with the contract, supply the technical materials, provide technical guidance, and warrant the practical applicability and reliability of the technology, and shall abide by its confidentiality obligations.
Article 348 The transferee under a contract for transfer of technical secret shall, in accordance with the contract, use the technology, pay the licensing fee and abide by its confidentiality obligations.
Article 349 The transferor under a technology transfer contract shall warrant that it is the lawful owner of the technology provided, and shall warrant that the technology provided is complete, free from error, effective, and capable of achieving the prescribed goals.
Article 350 The transferee under a technology transfer contract shall, in conformity with the scope and the time period as agreed upon in the contract, abide by its confidentiality obligations in respect of the non-public and secret portion of the technology provided by the transferor.
Article 351 Where the transferor fails to transfer technology in accordance with the contract, it shall refund the licensing fee in part or in whole, and shall be liable for the breach of contract;where the transferor exploits the patent or uses the technical secret beyond the agreed scope, or unilaterally allows the patent to be exploited or the technical secret to be used by a third
party in breach of the contract, it shall cease the breach and be liable for the breach of contract; where the transferor breaches any agreed confidentiality obligation, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.
Article 352 Where the transferee fails to pay the agreed licensing fee, it shall pay the overdue licensing fee and pay breach of contract damages in accordance with the contract; where it fails to pay the overdue licensing fee and breach of contract damages, it shall cease exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret, return the technical materials, and be liable for the breach of contract; where the transferee exploits the patent or uses the technical secret beyond the agreed scope, or allows the patent to be exploited or the technical secret to be used by a third party without consent of the transferor in breach of the contract, it shall cease the breach and be liable for the breach of contract; where the transferee breaches any agreed confidentiality obligation, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.
Article 353 Where the exploitation of the patent or the use of the technical secret by the transferee in accordance with the contract infringes on the lawful interests of any other person, the liability shall be borne by the transferor, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 354 The parties may, on the basis of mutual benefit, provide in the technology transfer contract for the method of sharing any subsequent improvement resulting from the exploitation of the patent or use of the technical secret. If such method is not agreed or the agreement is not
clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, neither party is entitled to share any subsequent improvement made by the other party.
Article 355 Where the relevant laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise in respect of technology import or export contracts or in respect of patent contracts or contracts for patent application, such provisions shall prevail.
Section Four Technical Consulting Contracts and Technical Service Contracts
Article 356 Technical consulting contracts include contracts for provision of feasibility studies,technical forecast, specialized technical investigation, and analysis and evaluation report, etc.in respect of a particular technical project.
  A technical service contract means a contract whereby one party solves a particular technical problem for the other party by utilizing its technical knowledge, excluding a contract for construction project or a contract of hired work.
Article 357 The client under a technical consulting contract shall, in accordance with the contract,describe the problem on which consultancy is sought, provide the technical background information as well as related technical materials and data; and accept the work product from, and pay the
remuneration to, the consultant.
Article 358 The consultant under a technical consulting contract shall complete the consulting report or answer the question within the agreed period; the consulting report submitted shall comply with the requirements set forth in the contract.
Article 359 Where the client under a technical consulting contract fails to provide the necessary materials and data in accordance with the contract, thereby impairing the progress and quality of the work, or fails to accept or delays in accepting the work result, it may not claim refund of the remuneration paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.
  Where the consultant under the technical consulting contract fails to provide the consulting report within the agreed period or the consulting report submitted does not comply with the contract, it shall be liable for the breach of contract by way of reducing or foregoing the remuneration, etc.
  The client under a technical consulting contract shall compensate the loss resulting from any decision made by it based on the complying consulting report and opinion provided by the consultant, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 360 The client under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with the contract, provide the working conditions and complete its tasks of cooperation; accept the work results and pay the remuneration.
Article 361 The service provider under a technical service contract shall, in accordance with the contract, complete the services, solve the technical problem, warrant the quality of its work,and communicate the knowledge for solving the technical problem.
Article 362 Where the client under a technical service contract fails to perform its contractual obligations, or the performance is not in conformity with the contract, thereby impairing the progress and quality of the work, or fails to accept or delays in accepting the work results, it may not claim refund of the remuneration paid, and shall pay any unpaid remuneration.
  Where the service provider under a technical service contract fails to complete services in accordance with the contract, it shall be liable for the breach of contract by way of forgoing the remuneration, etc.
Article 363 In the course of performing a technical consulting contract or a technical service contract,any new technology developed by the consultant or service provider utilizing the technical materials and working conditions provided by the client belongs to the consultant or service provider. Any new technology developed by the client utilizing the work results provided by the
consultant or service provider belongs to the client. However, if the parties agree otherwise in the contract, such provisions shall prevail.
Article 364 Where a relevant law or administrative regulation provides otherwise in respect of technology intermediary service contracts or technical training contracts, such provisions shall prevail.
Chapter 19 Storage Contracts
Article 365 A storage contract is a contract whereby the depository keeps the deposit delivered by the depositor, and eventually returns it thereto.
Article 366 The depositor shall pay the storage fee to the depository in accordance with the contract.
  Where the storage fee is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the storage shall be for free.
Article 367 A storage contract is established upon delivery of the deposit, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 368 Upon the depositor’s delivery of the deposit to the depository, the depository shall issue a deposit voucher thereto, except as otherwise practised in transaction.
Article 369 The depository shall keep the deposit with due care.
  The parties may agree the place and manner of storage. The place and manner of storage may not be changed without authorization, except in an emergency situation or for the purpose of protecting the depositor’s interests.
Article 370 Where the deposit delivered by the depositor has defects or requires special storage measures in light of its nature, the depositor shall inform the depository of the relevant situation.Where the depositor fails to inform, thereby causing damage to the deposit, the depository is not liable for damages; where the depository sustains any loss as a result, the depositor shall be liable for damages, except where the depository is, or ought to be, aware of the situation and fails to take remedial measures.
Article 371 The depository may not delegate storage of the deposit to a third party, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
  Where the depository delegated storage of the deposit to a third party in violation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, thereby causing damage to the deposit, the depository shall be liable for damages.
Article 372 The depository may not use, or allow the use of, the deposit, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 373 Where a third party makes a claim on the deposit, the depository shall perform its obligation of returning the deposit to the depositor, except where an order of preservation or enforcement is carried out in respect of the deposit in accordance with the law.
  Where a third party brings a lawsuit against the depository or applies for attachment of the deposit, the depository shall timely notify the depositor.
Article 374 If the deposit is damaged or lost due to improper storage by the depository during the deposit period, the depository shall be liable for damages, provided that if the storage is provided for free, and the depository proves that it has no gross negligence, it shall be not liable for damages.
Article 375 Where the depositor is to deposit money, securities, or any other valuable item for storage,it shall make a declaration to the depository on such item, which shall be inspected or sealed by the depository. Where the depositor fails to make such declaration and the article is damaged,destroyed or lost afterwards, the depository may compensate for it as it is an ordinary article.
Article 376 The depositor may retrieve the deposit at any time.
  Where a deposit period is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the depository may require the depositor to retrieve the deposit at any time; where a deposit period is agreed,without special reason, the depository may not require the depositor to retrieve the deposit before the expiry of the deposit period.
Article 377 At the expiry of the deposit period, or if the depositor retrieves the deposit before the expiry of the deposit period, the depository shall return the original item together with any fruit thereof to the depositor.
Article 378 Where the depository keeps money deposit, it may return money of the same type and quantity.Where the depository keeps any other fungible item, it may return any item of the same type,quality and quantity in accordance with the contract.
Article 379 Under a storage contract for value, the depositor shall pay to the depository the storage fee at the agreed time.
  Where the time of payment of the storage fee is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the storage fee shall be paid at the same time the deposit is retrieved.
Article 380 Where the depositor fails to pay the storage fee and other expenses, the depository is entitled to lien on the deposit, unless as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Chapter 20 Warehousing Contracts
Article 381A warehousing contract is a contract whereby the safekeeping party stores the goods delivered by the depositor, and the depositor pays the warehousing fee.
Article 382 A warehousing contract becomes effective upon its formation.
Article 383 Where the depositor intends to store any dangerous article which is inflammable, explosive,toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., or any material susceptible to deterioration, it shall indicate the nature of the goods and provide the relevant information.
  Where the depositor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the safekeeping party may reject the goods and may also take the appropriate measures to avoid losses, the cost consequently incurred shall be borne by the depositor.
  Where the safekeeping party is to store any dangerous article that is inflammable, explosive,toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, etc., it shall be equipped with the appropriate safekeeping conditions.
Article 384 The safekeeping party shall, in accordance with the contract, conduct warehouse-in inspection of the goods. Where in the course of such inspection, the safekeeping party discovers that the goods are not in conformity with the terms of the contract, it shall timely notify the depositor.
After inspection and acceptance by the safekeeping party, if it is discovered that the category,quantity or quality of the warehousing goods are not in conformity with the terms of the contract, the safekeeping party shall be liable for damages.
Article 385 Upon the depositor’s delivery of the goods, the safekeeping party shall issue a warehouse receipt.
Article 386 The safekeeping party shall sign or affix a seal on the warehouse receipt. The warehouse receipt shall contain the following items:
(1) name and domicile of the depositor;
(2) category, quantity, quality, and package, number of pieces and marks of the warehousing goods;
(3) standards of spoilage of the warehousing goods;
(4) place of storage;
(5) time period of storage;
(6) warehousing fee;
(7) if the goods have been insured, the insured amount, term of insurance and the name of the insurer;
(8) name of the person issuing the warehouse receipt, the place and the date of issuance.
Article 387 The warehouse receipt is the voucher for retrieving the goods. Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt has endorsed the warehouse receipt and the safekeeping party has signed or sealed thereon, the right to retrieve the goods may be assigned.
Article 388 Upon request of the depositor or the holder of the warehouse receipt, the safekeeping party shall allow the person to inspect the goods or take samples therefrom.
Article 389 Where the safekeeping party discovers that the warehoused goods are deteriorating or are otherwise damaged, it shall timely notify the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt.
Article 390 Where the safekeeping party discovers that the warehoused goods are deteriorating or are otherwise damaged, thereby endangering the safety and normal safekeeping of other warehoused goods, it shall demand disposal of the goods by the depositor or the holder of the warehouse receipt as necessary. In an emergency situation, the safekeeping party may dispose of the goods as necessary, but shall timely notify the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt of the situation.
Article 391 Where the warehousing period is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt may retrieve the goods at any time, and the safekeeping party may require the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt to retrieve the goods at any time,provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation.
Article 392 At the expiry of the warehousing period, the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt shall retrieve the goods by presenting the warehouse receipt to the safekeeping party. Where the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt fails to claim the goods, additional warehousing fee
shall be charged; where the goods are retrieved before the expiry the warehousing period, the warehousing fee shall not be reduced.
Article 393 At the expiry of the warehousing period, if the depositor or holder of the warehouse receipt fails to retrieve the goods, the safekeeping party may demand retrieval within a reasonable period, and if the goods are not retrieved at the expiry of such period, the safekeeping party may place the goods in escrow.
Article 394 Where the goods are damaged or lost during the warehousing period due to improper safekeeping by the safekeeping party, it shall be liable for damages. If the goods are deteriorated or damaged due to unconformity of the nature of the warehoused goods or of the packing with the terms of the contract, or the fact that the goods exceed the valid storage period, the
safekeeping party is not liable for damages.
Article 395 Matters not provided for in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provision on storage contracts.
Chapter 21 Commission Contracts
Article 396 A commission contract is a contract whereby the principal and the agent agree that the agent will handle the principal’s affairs.
Article 397 The principal may specifically appoint the agent to handle one or more of its affairs, or generally appoint the agent to handle all of its affairs.
Article 398 The principal shall prepay the expenses for handling the commissioned affair. Any expense necessary for handling the commissioned affair advanced by the agent shall be repaid with interest by the principal.
Article 399 The agent shall handle the commissioned affair in accordance with the instruction of the principal. Any required deviation from the principal’s instruction is subject to consent by the principal; in an emergency where the agent has difficulty in contacting the principal, the agent shall properly handle the commissioned affair, provided that thereafter the agent shall timely
notify the principal of the situation.
Article 400 The agent shall personally handle the commissioned affair. Subject to consent by the principal, the agent may delegate the agency to a third party. If the delegation is approved, the principal may issue instructions concerning the commissioned affair directly to the delegate, and
the agent is only responsible for its selection of the delegate or its own instruction thereto.Where the agency is delegated without consent, the agent shall be liable for any act of the delegate, except in an emergency where the agent needs to delegate the agency in order to safeguard the interests of the principal.
Article 401 Upon request by the principal, the agent shall report on the progress of the commissioned affair. Upon discharge of the commission contract, the agent shall render an account of the commissioned affair.
Article 402 Where the agent, acting within the scope of authority granted by the principal, enter into a contract in its own name with a third party who is aware of the agency relationship between the principal and agent, the contract is directly binding upon the principal and such third party,except where there is conclusive evidence establishing that the contract is only binding upon the
agent and such third party.
Article 403 Where the agent enter into a contract in its own name with a third party who is not aware of the agency relationship between the agent and the principal, if the agent fails to perform its obligation toward the principal due to any reason attributable to such third party, the agent
shall disclose the third party to the principal, allowing it to exercise the agent’s rights against such third party, except where the third party will not enter into the contract with the agent if he knows the identity of the principal at the time of entering into the contract.
  Where the agent fails to perform its obligation toward the third party due to any reason attributable to the principal, the agent shall disclose the principal to the third party,allowing the third party to select in alternative either the principal or the agent as the other contract party against whom to make a claim, provided that the third party may not subsequently change its selection of the contract party.
  Where the principal exercises the rights of the agent against the third party, the third party may avail itself of any defense it has against the agent. Where the third party selects the principal as the other party to the contract, the principal may avail itself of any defense it has against the agent as well as any defense the agent has against the third party.
Article 404 Any property acquired by the agent in the course of handling the commissioned affair shall be turned over to the principal.
Article 405 Upon completion of the commissioned affair by the agent, the principal shall pay the remuneration thereto. Where the agency appointment contract is terminated or the commissioned affair is not capable of being completed due to any reason not attributable to the agent, the principal shall pay to the agent an appropriate amount of remuneration. If the parties agrees
otherwise, such agreement shall prevail.
Article 406 Under a commission contract for value, if the principal sustains any loss due to the fault of the agent, the principal may claim damages. Under a gratuitous agency appointment contract, if the principal sustains any loss due to the agent’s intentional misconduct or gross negligence,the principal may claim damages.
  Where the agent acts beyond the scope of authorization, thereby causing loss to the principal, it shall pay damages.
Article 407 In the course of handling the commissioned affair, if the agent sustains any loss due to a reason not attributable to itself, the agent may seek indemnification from the principal.
Article 408 Subject to consent by the agent, the principal may, in addition to appointing the agent, also appoint a third party to handle the commissioned affair. If such appointment results in loss to the agent, it may seek indemnification from the principal.
Article 409 Where two or more agents jointly handle the commissioned affair, they are jointly and severally liable to the principal.
Article 410 Either the principal or the agent may terminate the agency appointment contract at any time.Where the other party sustains any loss due to termination of the contract, the terminating party shall indemnify the other party, unless such loss is due to a reason not attributable to the terminating party.
Article 411 A commission contract is discharged when either the principal or the agent is deceased or incapacitated or enters into bankruptcy, except where the parties agree otherwise, or where discharge is inappropriate in light of the nature of the commissioned affair.
Article 412 Where discharge of the commission contract due to the death, incapacitation or bankruptcy of the principal will harm the principal’s interests, the agent shall continue to handle the commissioned affair before an heir, legal agent or liquidation team thereof takes over the commissioned affair.
Article 413 If the commission contract is discharged as a result of the death, incapacitation or bankruptcy of the agent, the heir, legal agent or liquidation team thereof shall timely notify the principal. Where discharge of the agency contract will harm the principal’s interests, before the principal makes any care-taking arrangement, the heir, legal agent or liquidation team of the agent shall take the necessary measures.
Chapter 22 Contracts of Commission Agency
Article 414 A contract of commission agency is a contract whereby the commission agent conducts trading activities in its own name for the principal, and the principal pays the remuneration.
Article 415 The expenses incurred by the commission agent in the course of handling the commissioned affair shall be borne by the commission agent, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 416 Where the commission agent is in possession of the entrusted item, it shall keep the entrusted item with due care.
Article 417 If an entrusted item is defective, perishable or susceptible to deterioration at the time it was delivered to the commission agent, upon consent by the principal, the commission agent may dispose of the item; where the trustee-trader is unable to contact the principal in time, it may dispose of the entrusted item in a reasonable manner.
Article 418 Where the commission agent is to sell the entrusted item below, or buy the entrusted item above, the price designated by the principal, it shall obtain consent from the principal. If such sale is effected without consent by the principal, and the commission agent makes up the deficiency on its own, it is binding on the principal.
  Where the commission agent sells the entrusted item above, or purchases the entrusted item below, the price designated by the principal, the remuneration may be increased in accordance with the contract. Where such matter is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the benefit belongs to the principal.
  Where the principal gives special pricing instruction, the commission agent may not make any sale or purchase in contravention thereof.
Article 419 Where the commission agent is to sell or purchase a commodity the price of which is fixed by the market, the commission agent may act as the purchaser or seller itself, unless the principal expresses otherwise.
  Where the commission agent is under the situation prescribed in the preceding paragraph, it may still require payment of remuneration from the principal.
Article 420 Once the commission agent purchases the entrusted item in accordance with the contract, the principal shall timely take delivery. Where after receiving demand from the commission agent, the principal refuses to take delivery without cause, the commission agent may place the entrusted item in escrow in accordance with Article 101 of this Law.
  Where the entrusted item fails to be sold or the principal withdraws it from sale, the commission agent may place the entrusted item in escrow in accordance with Article 101 of this Law if the principal fails to retrieve or dispose of it after receiving such demand from commission agent.
Article 421 Where the commission agent enters into a contract with a third party, it directly enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations thereunder.
  Where the third party fails to perform its obligations, thereby causing damage to the principal, the commission agent shall be liable for damages, except as otherwise agreed upon by the commission agent and the principal.
Article 422 Where the commission agent has completed the entrusted matter or has partially completed the entrusted matter, the principal shall pay the appropriate remuneration thereto. Where the principal fails to pay the remuneration within the prescribed period, the commission agent is entitled to lien on the entrusted item, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 423 Matters not prescribed in this Chapter shall be governed by the relevant provision on commission contracts.
Chapter 23 Intermediation contracts
Article 424 A intermediation contract is a contract whereby the broker presents to the client an opportunity for entering into a contract or provides the client with intermediary services in connection with the conclusion thereof, and the client pays the remuneration.
Article 425 The broker shall provide true information concerning matters relevant to the conclusion of the proposed contract.
  Where the broker intentionally conceals any material fact or provided false information in connection with the conclusion of the proposed contract, thereby harming the client’s interests,it may not require payment of any remuneration and shall be liable for damages.
Article 426 Once the broker facilitates the formation of the proposed contract, the client shall pay the remuneration in accordance with the intermediation contract. Where remuneration to the broker is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61
of this Law, it shall be reasonably fixed in light of the amount of labor expended by the broker.Where the broker facilitates the formation of the proposed contract by providing intermediary services in connection therewith, the remuneration paid to the broker shall be equally borne by parties thereto.
  Where the broker facilitates the formation of the proposed contract, the brokerage expenses shall be borne by itself.
Article 427 Where the broker fails to facilitate the formation of the proposed contract, it may not require payment of remuneration, provided that it may require the client to reimburse the necessary brokerage expenses incurred.
  Supplementary Provisions
Article 428 This Law shall take effect as of October 1, 1999, and the Economic Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Foreign-related Economic Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China, and the Technology Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China shall be repealed simultaneously.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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